Qualities to Look for from Makers of Custom Lanyards

If you are tasked by your company or your school to order custom lanyards, you will be surprised that many companies offer this type of items nowadays. Hence, you may be faced with the challenge of picking the right provider to avoid wasting your money on substandard or undelivered products. To help you out, here are some qualities that you should look for when considering different makers of custom lanyards.

Online Store

In the current times, it is a big plus if you can order the items that you need online and that includes custom lanyards, so that you can get things done even if you are at the office. When checking out websites, make sure that the lanyard maker’s website has all the features that you need to know more about the products and to place an order. For instance, they should explain clearly what differentiates one type of lanyard from the other. They should also properly list down and categorize their product for easy surfing between their pages. Finally, it will help greatly if the site has a shopping cart option so that you can pay for your orders online too.

Free Quote

Custom LanyardsBefore you make an order, it is important that you ask for a quote first to know for sure if the custom lanyards that you want made will fit your budget. If not, then you may have to make changes on the quantity, the design or the attachments. A good lanyard maker will offer this quote for free to assist you with finalizing your order. If the company asks for a fee for this, turn your back and go to the next company on your list.

Clear Pricing

When you study the quotation that you were given, check if the final bill includes everything like tax, shipping fees and artwork. You do not want to be surprised later on with a higher bill than what was indicated on the quote. Some lanyard makers hide details in the fine prints, so read the quote carefully or ask the provider if you have any doubts.

Support on Art Design

It is a big plus if the lanyard maker gives support on creating the artwork for your lanyards. You can get valuable ideas from them regarding the right colors to use or what the ideal size of the letters should be. If they are offering this design support for free, then accept it willingly in order to improve the appearance of the products.

High Quality Products

Aside from appearance, you must also ensure that the company is known to provide high quality lanyards. You can learn about this by reading testimonials or reviews on the internet. You may also ask their previous customers whether they were satisfied with their orders. This is why it is best to start your search for the right lanyard maker by asking for referrals from your friends or colleagues.

Offers Various Styles

The reason why you are ordering customized lanyards is that you want to come up with a product that fits your specific needs. Hence, the more options available for you, the better. This translates to having the freedom to choose between various fabrics, attachments, printing processes and sizes.

Various Modes of Payment

Since you are after convenience in ordering your lanyards then find a company that offers various modes of payment as well. Just one thing to remember, if you are paying with your credit card, make sure that the website is secured to avoid compromising your personal information.

Fast Delivery

Most of all, find a lanyard maker that can deliver on time, especially if you need the items quickly. If the company agrees to the delivery date that you specified, then they must commit to that or else ask for a refund, which must be clearly stated before you transact with them.

Windows Virtual Private Server Hosting

There are things a person should do before they can start a Windows VPS hosting business. He/She has to have the infrastructure needed and technical know how or ability to operate and maintain servers. Another option is to employ a highly trained or experienced team to help with the business. It is also necessary to study the market or industry. He/She needs to analyze the competition and market demand. Most people use Windows. Unbiased customer reviews also need to be read to know what they regard to have the best quality. The current best hosting companies cannot be imitated but must serve as a source of inspiration (no one wants a copycat). Both Windows and Linux are on high demand but there are differences in technical capabilities (except Java which run on both). The person must have an award winning technical support team that has operators that are kind, understanding and would answer inquiries on the dot 24/7. The service needs to be highly secured (the system needs to be highly protected from viruses and hackers) and of the client’s utmost satisfaction.

Windows VPS hosting is said to be the best hosting solution and has been so for decades. It has the performance and security of a dedicated server but at a more affordable price. This VPS is highly recommended if the programs and features to be used are from Microsoft itself. For example, a program called CPanel only works with Linux OS while ASP, Access and .NET would only work with Windows. It is easy to use as it is similar to Windows OS and is already familiar to its users. If the customer hosts multiple websites, no resources would be shared to other users and others that are using the similar service with the hosting provider. Some companies also offer free initial setup and backups that can be daily or during the night. The owner should also offer one to the customer too. Also the company must include a regular backup schedule, a licensed copy of Windows 2008 or 2012 server and dependable Windows release so that the customer will know that the server will be constantly available. The business must definitely offer a discount for the first month (or make it free), launch domains quickly, have a full access control panel and assist the customer during migration.

windows VPSThere is also Windows VPS cloud hosting like Windows Azure, Rack pace Cloud Windows Servers VPS and Cloud VPS (a tie-up with Windows), etc. It is more powerful than the rest and uses a cloud platform that is powered by Microsoft Hyper-V. The cloud is compatible with Windows Enterprise 2008 and 2012 servers and Microsoft Office. Cloud servers are more powerful than the other servers and highly scalable. The customer only needs to pay for the time they use (some sites bill every minute) and a contract with the company would not be necessary. Other sites offer their clouds for $33/month with 2 GB of RAM, 1.000 GHZ CPU, full root and remote desktop access, SQL database, ASP.net, PHP and Smater Mail 11.x.

The owner should do extensive research first before trying any hosting business. There are different ways to host a website using Windows VPS (whether it may be the cloud or not) but there are also pros and cons that the owner must be aware and prepared for. It is highly advisable to also offer managed VPS hosting to the customers. It would be easy for them and make money for the business. Once the company has been established, the people behind it must work hard to build credibility and experience through fast and reliable service that others would recommend to their friends and relatives. The hosting business may not be on top of the ranks yet but it will get there.

A Buyer’s Guide to Custom Lapel Pins

Lapel pins are a small piece of jewellery worn on clothes that can bring a powerful message. It can send an authoritative vibe or a sense of respect to the person or audience the wearer is talking to when it shows his rank or achievement in a company or organization. It can also effectively send the message of awareness and empathy when it shows the cause and idea the wearer is passionate about. Additionally, it can also be a good conversation starter, which helps promote brand identity, when it has the logo of the organization one is affiliated to. There are just three of the many messages a lapel pin can effectively deliver that it is no wonder it became a staple in almost any organization today. Despite the value it can add to the wearer, these small badges are surprisingly affordable.

Below is a quick guide on how to choose the right type and design when ordering customized lapel pins.

1.Choose simple, readable fonts. Fancy fonts may look great on paper, but not on metal. Choose a font that readers don't have to figure out what is written as the idea to effectively convey a message is lost. It will also give your pin a clean, professional look. There are pin makers that have their own graphic designers that you can ask to make suggestions to help improve your design for free. Make sure to take advantage of such offer as they are have the first-hand knowledge on what looks good on metal.

pins2.If makers allow it, choose your own pin base metal plating. Take note that the metal used can affect the price of the final product. Conduct a quick survey in the organization on what metal base to use. There are a lot of options to choose from, such as gold, antique gold, nickel, satin nickel, silver, antique silver, brass, antique bronze, copper, and antique copper.

3.Don't forget the texture of the background. Though this is just a very small detail that it might look as if it will not make a difference, but textured background can add life to your lapel pins.

4.Size does not play a big role. The line "the bigger, the better" is not applicable when designing a lapel pin. A good design on a quality material can already invoke a powerful message. Just choose the most appropriate size for your design.

5.A lapel pin does not always need to be circular. Depending on the design of your logo, you can choose to have your pin shaped like pentagon, shield, triangular, square, or rectangle.

Choosing the Lapel Pin Style

Although the pin maker can help you decide on this, it will also help if you know the difference between these styles before you decide which one to pick.


A die-struck pin looks classy and traditional as it does not use any color aside from the metals that are being used. In this process, the metal base is being stamped with another metal to create recessed areas on the pin, making the custom design appear. The design on this pin has clear edgings and cuts.

Soft enamel

This has the same process as the die-struck pins, but they use a much affordable metal like iron, copper, or brass. After the stamping process, the recessed areas are filled with enamel paints and sealed with heat to have a lustrous-looking final product.


If you want a photograph or an exact copy of your organization’s logo on your pins, which could have a lot of colors and details, the offset printed style is the best option. In this process, a photographic negative is transferred to a metal pin through heat and is then coated with a protective epoxy on top. This is the fastest way of creating a customized lapel pin design.

3D Cast

This type of pin offers a higher level of detail quality than the regular 2D die-struck design. To create different surface levels to give the pin a three-dimensional look, a rubber mould is used to strike a molten metal instead of the regular metal used in a die-struck design. After the design has been polished, it will then be plated on the metal base. Final attachments and finishes are then applied.


This method is the combination of the offset-printed and soft enamel process. Once the photographic design has been transferred to the pin, it is then etched into the pin through an acid-reaction process. Etches are then filled with enamel colors. The whole thing is then baked for a specific period of time.

Solving The Traffic Issues of Startup Websites – Hire a SEO Company

There are currently millions of websites being launched. There is no end in sight either. You could track along and see just how many people are interested in setting up sites, and it would never end, everyone at one point or another wants to build a website that will get them noticed on the web. It’s for that simple reason that you may want to look into how to stand out. Sure, it’s a great thing to update your page, and get it up and running, but if you are sincere about getting a good market share and audience, then you will need to take enough time to understand that traffic is not easy to get.

The Ways To Get Traffic

There are currently a lot of different ways to get traffic. You may think that you are keen on knowing how, but without the help of a SEO company, you are relegated to just a handful of options that work. Some options are grand, others aren’t so hot, but in the end, you are going to find yourself dealing with a variety of issues that are nothing short of terrible. Don’t believe this? Consider the following methods that you’re left with outside of the scope of hiring a SEO company.

SEOTraffic Generation Software – It is marketed as a game changer, it will promise you unlimited hits to your site and it very well could send you a lot of attention. You will check your metrics and be absolutely delighted by what you get. However, it is there that you’re going to bang your head against the table. The hits you receive will be from bots, ad sales, and other elements that are 100% similar. No software today can deliver “REAL” and “UNIQUE” hits, it’s just not possible.

Web Rings – These used to be all the rage when the internet started. You could join a ring in a certain niche, and then get cycled through a variety of different hits from people of all interests. The problem here is that people would cycle through the list of sites and end up doing nothing more than registering a quick hit if anything. Web rings are a terrible waste of traffic, and will be on par with software options.

Traffic Exchanges – There are some sites that have memberships where you can join for free, and then exchange traffic with other pages. You will have to either surf or buy your hits and people logged in will watch your site for 30 seconds before moving to the next one. These were big with bloggers beforehand, but now are nothing more wastes of time. Again, you will not receive unique traffic at all. No one on these pages cares about the sites they are seeing and therefore it’s not worth your time.

PPC Advertising – Pay per click or cost per action advertising is a good solution overall. However, if you’re doing this on your own, away from a solid SEO company, you will end up finding out that this is not only costly but it’s difficult to get results from. Yes, you can get targeted, unique traffic, but you will also end up with a high bounce rate and many skeptical visitors. Targeted warm leads this way takes a measure of trial and error, and that could cost you a pretty penny.

SEO – Search engine optimization is a good solution to chase. It will allow your page to get seen by search engines in a much faster rate of speed. Indexing will rise, and organic traffic will hit your site that is not only unique, but is 100% targeted. The downside here is that it usually takes a SEO company to truly get results. If you’re keen on trial and error, you can definitely find yourself with an incredible journey here, one that will show you new things daily, but your site may suffer as you try to learn how to get the right influence online here.

The Responsibility of A Professional Company For Traffic Generation

When you look into hiring a professional company for the purpose of search engine optimization, advertising, and marketing campaigns, the responsibility falls on them. They will pick the keywords, create content, establish the right code, backlinks, and much more under the banner of internet marketing. It’s very important to seek the help of a professional service in this regards, because without them, you will be limited to how much traffic you can generate through organic means. The aforementioned are just a few of the things that you can do to gain traffic online. It is in no way representative of all the options available, but it’s definitely something that is worth noting.

In the end, if you don’t hire anyone, you will have to run through a lot of different solutions in order to get your new website serviced with real world traffic. There are a lot of shortcuts you can take, and many promises that optimization services and companies try to give you, but in the end, they aren’t going to deliver if they are taking shortcuts. Be careful when hiring anyone in this field, it’s easy to showcase hubris.

Factors that Allow Baldwin County Eye Doctor Clinics to Process Eyeglasses within an Hour

Regular eye checkup with optometrists and ophthalmologists is as important as regular physical examinations with a primary care provider. Many vision problems are regarded as indicators of impending serious optic problems or as symptoms of other physiological issues. With a reliable Baldwin County eye doctor, a patient can undergo complete eye examinations and receive eyeglasses within an hour because of the following:

Complete facilities on site

Having every needed facility on site is the key to providing fast services. No need to visit various clinic branches for referrals on certain services. Complete facilities in one clinic let a Baldwin County eye doctor conduct checkups and tests immediately for speedy lens construction.

Eye DoctorThese doctors understand that people prefer to spend time on something more important. Since majority of people are not that concerned of their vision problems, they won’t wait for hours for eye examination and eyepiece construction in a clinic. Fortunately, a client can have his examination upon stepping into the establishments. Facilities like charts, digital retinal photography equipment, and vision correction machines like LASIK setups are available, which mean that a patient can undergo the procedure as soon as possible.

Machines used for eye checkups’ availability and eyepiece construction is a joy for walk-ins looking to own top-caliber prescription glasses. These individuals happen to have the time for eye exams and want to get them done before they become busy again.

Availability of supplies

Aside from facilities, supplies needed for making prescription glasses also make the entire process faster. One of the reasons why lens manufacturing was challenging before is the unavailability of supplies. Instead of stocking lenses and frames in the clinic, they would wait for patients who will visit the establishment, subject them to examinations, and order lenses from dealers. Additionally, lack of supplies make repairs and alterations a pain for clients who are looking have their eyepieces fixed.

A Baldwin County eye doctor can give clients their eyeglasses regardless of their prescription magnification requirements or frame preferences. These supplies are available in the clinic and ready for processing whenever a client arrives for checkup.

Among the supplies needed are frames, lenses for eyeglasses, and contact lenses. Customers simply need to choose among their options and the Baldwin County eye doctor can set their magnification power immediately. After an hour, their eyeglasses are ready for use together with other accessories that may be included in the service or other add-ons.

Knowledge in insurance services

Improvements in the healthcare industry gave birth to vision coverage, which allow clients to have their eye examinations without spending money off their pockets as the service is covered by their insurance. Instead of spending money, many people prefer to let their insurance providers handle their eye examination expenses.

Although beneficial for clients, insurance plans with vision coverage can be tricky for inexperienced clinics. Confusion as to the coverage’s validity for a client is possible. Because of its popularity today, people can now undergo examination immediately with optometrists and ophthalmologists’ knowledge of insurance plans. They have access to resources needed in verifying their clients’ plans for vision coverage. Furthermore, many of these clinics are affiliated with insurance companies, which in turn means they will know immediately that a client can undergo examination upon showing their insurance cards.

In case the client holds a different insurance plan, he can check whether he can get the services for them or not.

A Baldwin County eye doctor has all these resources in the clinic, which allow him to offer eye examination and prescription manufacturing in an hour. This is a convenient service for today’s busy individuals while promoting customer satisfaction.

A Body To Die For Via Prohormones

When muscles and unbelievable strength are mentioned, there are two characters that come to mind: Popeye and Captain America. Think about how Popeye instantly transforms just by chugging down a can of his favorite leafy greens and how Captain America became a hunk after being induced with the super-soldier formula.

In real life, although results of both Popeye and Captain America are possible to achieve, they are not easily attainable. There is no magic spinach and there is no legal super-soldier formula that could make your body get buffed up in no time.

buy prohormonesBut as previously mentioned, big muscles and increase in strength are possible to gain by eating the right kinds of food (those that are rich in proteins like eggs, fish and red meat) at the right amount, taking vitamin supplements such as potassium, magnesium and some calcium, and doing specific muscle-building program like weight lifting and resistance training, and taking dietary supplements.

One such supplement that one can take is called prohormones. But before things get crazy (like maybe a prohormone supplement buying spree in the next few hours), there is some basic information one has to know first:

What are prohormones?

Basically, prohormones are substances that can cause the body to produce androgenic hormone effect. Now what are androgenic hormones? These are hormones that can give the body a more masculine effect, like bulging muscles.

Next, why buy prohormones? What do they do to the body?

The usual effects one gets from using prohormones are increase in muscle strength and growth, rise of stamina and a positive effect on the libido level. For some, all the above-mentioned effects may happen all at once, but for some, it may take longer or there are no effects at all.

With these results, how does it happen in the body?

Research shows that when prohormones are taken, usually orally, these are broken down by the liver, converted by the enzymes and then absorbed by the cells of the body. With that, the muscles absorb the molecules and the magic, or rather the hard work, starts!

Who are the people who usually use and buy prohormones?

Bodybuilders who need to bulk up, gain some extra pounds and also have more strength, athletes who need the stamina to last longer in their sport, and fitness enthusiasts who dream of looking and feeling like demigods are the usual clientele of the prohormone supplement industry.

Now that things have been said, where can one buy prohormones?

Since prohormones have been made safer and legal by making them non-methylated, meaning they are now less damaging to the liver, one can buy prohormones over the counter at fitness stores or through online shops which are dedicated to body building.

Now these supplements come in different forms. One can buy prohormones in capsule forms while there are also those in soft gel forms. There are liquefied versions too as well as sprays, and even injectable.

For the capsules and soft gels, prices range between £26.99 to £149.99. The minimum number of capsules per bottle is 90 pieces while for the liquid form, it’s 60 milligrams.

However, here are some words of advice for the possible users.

Though the new versions of prohormones can no longer do much harm to the liver because they are non-methylated, it is advisable to take the necessary precautions by taking supplements that would protect the liver from damage such as silymarin. There are reports of increase in blood pressure, presence of acne, mild balding (especially if it’s genetic), testicular shrinkage and gynecomastia or growth of breasts in men.

Remember, safety before vanity.

E-Liquid in the Marketing Industry

The marketing of e-liquids and e-cigarettes has grown rapidly in the last year. There are numerous manufacturers that emerged, and they’ve shown great interest in the tobacco industry for quite some time. They have bought independent operators recently, creating about 121 product trademark applications only in the UK alone in 2012 until 2013. With this comes the opportunity for increased marketing in the area of e-liquids, going up from £1.7 million in 2010 to as much as £13.1 million in 2012 in UK alone.

This increase will likely continue, as there are a number of companies that promote e-liquids and e-cigarette products in the western market. In fact, the British American Tobacco subsidiary already spent £3.6 million in its mission of promoting its e-products to the UK market. They have tried to accumulate support from the public, for the reason that what they sell is relatively good for the buyer.

Nowadays, the e liquid marketing industry centers on two themes: the safety of smoking e-liquids as well as the chance for smoking cessation. In newspaper articles and advertisements, it can be read that e-liquids are safer, cheaper, healthier alternative than that of the traditional nicotine. They are harmless to users but can still satisfy the nicotine addiction of smokers. They are considered an indispensable tool in the pathway to quitting. With this, the e-liquid marketing industry has been promoting the long-term use of the product as some form of a permanent alternative to original tobacco usage.

The industry has likewise promoted it as a temporary alternative when it comes to public smoking in areas where it has been banned. Thus, the center of advertisement of e-fluids can be found in the phrase: “the freedom to enjoy the personal pleasures associated with smoking in places where traditional smoking has been banned.” For the industry, smoking is as easy as lighting up an e-cigarette anytime, anyplace.

e-4Meanwhile, the e-liquid marketing industry is under the banner that smoking e-cigarettes is all glamour for the youth and the sensational members of the population. Advertisers promote it as a lifestyle choice that creates a person’s identity and character. This is seen on the way e-fluids are being advertised: with the use of stylish designs, association with celebrities, and the use of fashionable venues and events. They are even using sports events in the advertisement of the products to promote the bearing and effectiveness of using e-fluids in smoking. With all these, tobacco companies have tried to raise the awareness of the public that smoking has initially been reinvented through the development of e-liquids.

Nowadays, there is celebrity endorsement in e-liquid marketing, wherein the media is used by the endorsers to promote awareness to the public, that using e-fluids is safer, healthier, and cheaper. With this comes a paid testimonial of prominent images linked to the product, one who is common among the youths and can represent the products in a stylish, affective manner. The Girls Aloud, for example, can be seen puffing e-cigarettes and using e-liquids to cope up with the stress of their tenth anniversary tour.

There are others, such as East Enders and Lewis, who were shown using e-liquids and e-cigarettes, as shown in famous television shows in the UK. There are likewise a number of Hollywood actors and actresses, who have pictures where they were shown to use e-liquids and e-cigarettes, such as Leonardo Vicario, Dennis Quad, and Kevin Connolly. With all these, the e-liquid appears to the public as one that is socially acceptable yet one that is socially superior.

It’s safe to say that through the power of advertising and given the perks that they bring, e-cigarettes will soon overtake tobacco in both popularity and availability.

How Cat6 Makes Life Easier Today

Offices nowadays have all of their computers linked together; even houses have their computers linked in a single Ethernet or server. People do this in order to make file sharing easier. When one needs a file from a certain computer, he can just go to their server’s folder, or into their local area network, and have the chance to access the same file he or she has created in another computer. This makes file sharing, data gathering and even data transfer far easier and convenient for every member of an organization.

When people would like to set up their local area network, they are given a wide array of choices of cables to choose from. There’s the Cat5 cable, the Cat5e cable, and the Cat6 cable. Each cable has its own advantages and unique features. However, if one is looking for speed and longevity, the best choice would be to use the Cat6 cable. This specific cable has several features and advantages, and here are some of them:

First, the Cat6 cable is faster compared to all the others. It has the capability to transfer data at the speed of at least a gigabit per second. Compared to the other cables, this is by far the fastest one. This will be especially useful for sharing bigger files. This would mean that data transfer from one computer to another would be faster and more efficient. This would be especially useful when they’re sharing software, or if it’s like a video-editing and production company, where video files and such are really big, and so sharing them in a network would take a lot of time, especially if the cables they are using cannot accommodate large amounts of data than is allowed. For companies that manage large amounts of data and do not exactly have the convenience of a lot of time, the Cat6 cable would definitely be the better choice.

ca-11Second, each patch cable has a separator in between each of them. This makes data transportation even faster as it allows large amounts of data to be transported in different patch cables. This would mean that if the data is divided and transported in the same speed over more cables, it is faster, and there is less chance of short circuits. This would prove especially useful in the long run as it avoids unwanted glitches or fails every single time.

Finally, it has a better management for crosstalk and system noise. This means that when one user is communicating with another person on the other line, there is a clearer connection, and less chance of pops and unwanted noise that usually accompany those conversations. This means that communication between the members would now be clearer, and fewer chances for misinterpretation can occur.

Each cable has its own advantage and disadvantages. However, the best thing about the Category 6 cable is that there is a lesser chance of fails and breakdowns in the near future. Therefore this would be a better investment for a company server maybe just until the better cable comes out soon.

So far, the Category 6 cable is the best cable out in the market as of the present. It is the latest, the most updated, and the fastest among all options. Therefore, when you’re choosing for a cable for your residential network, or if you’re a company looking into equipping your company with a high speed server, this cable would not only a great choice but definitely the best choice so far. Let’s accept it, when it comes to data transfer and convenience, all of us surely wants the best, right?

What are Printed Circuit Boards?

Every electronic appliance needs microchip-like component to support and connect the electronic components of the appliance or gadget. This microchip-like component is known as printed circuit boards or PCB.

Printed circuit boards are specifically designed and created to attach the different electronic components of a certain appliance and gadget. The “card body” of the PCB is made from non-conductive materials such as fiberglass or plastic. In most versions, copper wore is etched or inserted within the layers of the PCB.

Aside from the non-conductive card body, PCBs are also composed of electricity conducting materials that are used to allow electricity to flow from one component to another. The flow of electricity enables the appliance or gadget to function as a whole.

PCBs are also created and designed to function for a certain task or purpose aside from connecting all the electronic components. Some PCBs are mass produced while others can be assembled or created by a person. This type of PCB is usually made from simple materials and follows a simple design to make building and assembling the circuit board easier.

The first printed circuit boards were actually used back in the 1850s. The first PCB was originally made using thin metal strips and rods to connect electric wires and outer components that were constructed on wooden bases. Over the years, the circuit boards were modified and upgraded by replacing the metal strips with wires and screw terminals. The circuit boards also grew thinner and smaller as the years went by, making it more durable and easier to use and design.

The name of the PCB is actually derived from Charles Ducas’ design where the electrical components were embedded on the card body by using a stencil printing method. This method improved the design and production of PCBs.

After that, more complex designs and methods of creating PCBs surfaced. In 1943, Paul Eisler invented a method wherein the circuits are etched onto a non conductive card body. This method was used by the US military in manufacturing and producing weapons during the World War II. By the 1950s, this technique saw commercial success in creating PCBs.

pc-4As the years went by, the PCBs grew smaller, thinner and more flexible. Several production methods were combined into one to create a high quality and modern type of PCB. This saw the creation of multi-layered PCBs with both conductive and non conductive components. The small size of the PCBs proved beneficial to appliance and gadget makers. It helped in creating technological innovations that are lighter and easier to use and carry.

At present, there are three popular methods used in manufacturing the circuit boards. These methods are milling, silkscreen and photo-resist.

The milling method involves a mill to make the circuit boards. It is used to drill and remove small pieces of copper and wires around the board. This method is the most cost effective and cheap out of all the three methods. However, this method is not used in manufacturing PCBs professionally because the quality is lower when compared to the other two methods.

Silk-screening is a method used by professional PCB makers. In silk-screening, a piece of cloth is tightly pulled over a frame. Then a design pattern is printed onto the cloth. As the ink passes on the cloth, it is also transferred onto the board. Then, this printed pattern is used to make the circuit boards.

The last method is photo-resist. This method involves photolithography and is made using light sensitive covering known as photo-resist. This method is very complicated and used by big printed circuit board’s production companies.

The Origin of the Challenge Coins

It has always been a tradition in the army to carry challenge coins that signify the owner’s membership in the army. A challenge coin is a medallion of bronze, silver, or copper, which bears the insignia or the emblem of the organization. It is usually used in the military, where membership is identified as one that is precisely precious and valuable, one that represents dedication, loyalty, and patriotism. It signifies the devotion and allegiance of the member to its organization, even when life is at stake, and nothing is left but the desire to endure and be of service to the nation. Challenge coins are presented to the members during times of special achievement or in recognition to a visit to the organization, to signify that they are one with the receiver. It enhances the morale of the members, encouraging them to unite as one.

It is said that the origin of the challenge coin can be dated back to the time of World War II. In this story, it was said that challenge coins started at the Office of Strategic Service stationed in Nazi of France. During this time, coins were used as a form of Bona Fides, as evidence or proof that the carrier of the coin was indeed a member of the organization. It was used during personal meetings with the assembly, to signify the identity of the person and ascertain his membership to the organization. However, these were not just coins, but coins that bear specific aspects and characteristics that were chosen, to set those coins apart from the other coins. This included the type of the coin that was used, the date of the coin that is imprinted, the colors and the images that are imprinted on the coin, as well as the phrases that were imprinted. The most significant reason for these challenge coins, however, was to prevent future infiltration by members of other organizations, who were not entitled to be part of the assembly. For this, many organizations in the army usually make use of more than one challenge coin, and they differ in terms of aspect or characteristic, depending on the reasons for the organization assembly. Thus, a true member of the assembly should personally know what challenge coin to present to the assembly, to prove him to be a member of the organization.

c-10 Thus, in a special meeting with the assembly, it has been a tradition that a member of the organization would challenge the member who had just arrived, asking him to present his challenge coin and prove his membership and allegiance to the group. With this, the challenged member would then present his challenge coin to prove his identity and his membership, to indicate that he is not a spy or an outsider who intends to infiltrate the assembly and spy on what is taking place in their group. Thus, the name “challenge coin” was taken to give name to the coin or the medallion that is being presented to the organization to prove one’s membership to the group. It is taken as a “bona fides” to prove the validation of a person’s membership.

There are other stories that present the beginning of the challenge coin, such as the time when medallions were used in the post-Korean conflict in the 1950s; or the time when solid silver coins were used in Southeast Asia during World War II. Over time, it has been accepted that challenge coins do not merely present the membership and identity of the carrier, but they also signify and attest that they are in true service to the organization.